Detergent is substances that remove off particles of grease and dirt from other fabrics, objects, cloths, body and use in industry .Detergent are made up of different types. Any substance that is used to clean the laundry is called detergent. There are different types of detergent used depending upon the type of laundry.

Detergent: Product that after formulation is devised to promote the development of detergency.

Surface Active Agent: Chemical compound which, when dissolved or dispersed in a liquid is absorbed at an interface, giving rise to a number of important chemical properties.

Amphiphilic Product: Product which contains in its structure one or more hydrophilic groups and one or more hydrophobic groups.


Detergents are complex formulations that contain more than 25 different ingredients, which can be categorized into the following main groups:

1. Surfactants

2. Builders

3. Bleaching agents

4. Additives


 Surfactants represent the most important group of detergent components. They are present in all types of detergents. Surfactants are water-soluble surface-active agent’s comprised of a hydrophobic group (a long alkyl chain) attached to the hydrophilic group.

The hydrophilic group is usually added synthetically to a hydrophobic material in order to produce a compound, which is soluble in water.This solubilization does not necessarily produce a detergent since detergency depends on the balance of the molecular weight of hydrophobic portion to that of the hydrophilic portion.

Four main groups of surfactants: anionic, cationic, non-cationic and amphoteric.

1. Anionic Surfactants are compounds in which the detergency is realized in the anion.

R-SO3- Na+   : Alkylsulfonates (anionic surfactants)

2. Cationic Surfactants are compounds in which the detergency is in the cation. No neutralization takes place. The material is in effect neutralized by a strong acid.

R2N+ (CH3)2Cl- : Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides (cationic surfactants)

Non-ionic Surfactants contain non-ionic constituents.

RO-(CH2-CH2-O)nH : Alkyl poly(ethylene glycol)ethers (non-ionic surfactants)

Amphoteric Surfactants includes both acidic and basic groups in the same molecule.

Detergent use in:

The first substance made as a detergent was soap. On the other hand, metal soaps, alkaline earth carboxylates or heavy metals are long-chain. These soaps are insoluble in water and in inorganic systems, for example, additives to lubricating oils, rust inhibitors, waterproofing materials and gelatinous fuels, fungicides are used. Bleaches and remove colors although all the metal salts of fatty acids are soap, only alkaline salts such as sodium and potassium are soluble in water and have a cleansing effect.


Synthetic detergents

Liquid soap


Washing powder

Bleaches and remove Colors

The groups of chemical are used for detergent:

Sulfonic Acid

Labsa/Linear/benzene sulphonic acid

Triethanolamine Lauryl Sulfate / TLS

Diethanolamin /DEA

Triethanolamin/ TEA

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate /SLS

Sles/texapon/Solium Lauryl ether Sulfate

Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate /ALS


NaOCl/ Sodium hypochlorite

NaOH/Sodium hydroxide

Sodium carbonate/soda ash

The kind of different detergents

1) Powder detergent 

2) Conventional detergent 

3) Liquid detergent 

The groups of surface-active agents are use in detergent:

  Anionic detergent: that is including soap and the largest synthetic detergents

  Cationic detergent: that produces electrically positive ions in solution.

  Nonionic detergent: it produces electrically neutral colloidal particles in solution.

Principle groups of synthetic detergents:

Detergents are complex formulations that contain more than 25 different ingredients that can be categorized into the following main groups:

1. Surfactants

2. Builders

3. Bleaching agents

4. Additives

Molecules in detergent

The detergent (surface-active agents) has chemical structures: their molecules contain a hydrophobic (water-insoluble) part, same as a fatty acid or a rather long chain carbon group such as fatty alcohols or alkyl benzene.The molecule contains a hydrophilic (water-soluble) group, such as −COONa, or a sulfa group, such as −OSO3Na or −SO3Na.The hydrophobic part of the molecule attaches to the solid or fiber and the soil, and the hydrophilic part attaches to the water.

What is acid slurry?

Acid slurry is a sulphonation product made by sulphonation of linear alkyl benzene by oleum or so3 or sulphuric acid. It is used in manufacturing of various detergents.

Synthetic detergents have made rapid strides during the last decade. Liquid synthetic detergents is a consumable item and are used for cleaning of silk cloth, woolen clothes, utensils, machinery, and floor and in the textile industry, etc. It is a common consumer item and the demand for which is increasing

Process of Manufacturing:

The process of manufacture consists of the neutralization of acid slurry. The measured quantity of acid slurry is taken in SS kettle and diluted with the known quantity of water with continuous stirring. A solution of caustic soda is prepared by dissolving a measured quantity of caustic soda in measured quantity of water. The acid slurry is neutralized by slow addition of caustic soda solution till it is neutralized. The pH of the solution is maintained and acid slurry is taken in plastic containers. Then known quantity of urea is added and kept for settling. The small quantity of perfume is added to liquid detergent before packing.

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